• Mary Campagna

Associated Facts

Updated: Jun 19

Links to Mary Bishop’s work in The Roanoke Times & World New, Roanoke, Virginia;

1. http://www.virginiaroom.org/digital/files/original/13/3445/UrbanRenewal.pdf

2. https://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/ROA-Times/issues/1995/rt9504/950402/03310102.htm

3. Link to Roanoke’s Comprehensive Plan, Roanoke, Virginia, 2040.

https://planroanoke.org/interwoven-equity/ This provides a positive eye toward the future.

4. Link to Dr. Mindy Fullilove’s work: https://www.amazon.com/Root-Shock-Tearing-Neighborhoods-America/dp/1613320191

5. Link to a dissertation using the work of Mary Campagna (2016): https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/bitstream/handle/10919/99930/Shepherd_AB_D_2020.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

6. Link to a news article by Mary E. Campagna: https://theroanokestar.com/2020/06/26/death-of-iconic-african-american-activist-is-great-loss-for-roanoke/

7. Link to Mary E. Campagna’s 2017 article concerning the Dumas and Gainsboro History: https://theroanoketribune.org/defining-the-dumas-legacy/

8. Martha Parks:


9. Mary Boxley Bullington :


10. Recent Gainsboro articles RE: Gainsboro Revitalization in the City of Roanoke, VA.

1. https://www.wsls.com/news/local/2022/05/06/gainsboro-residents-voice-ideas-concerns-over-latest-revitalization-plan/

2. https://www.wsls.com/video/news/2022/05/06/first-public-meeting-for-gainsboro-revitalization/

3. https://www.wsls.com/video/news/2022/05/06/feedback-on-revitalization-efforts-in-roanokes-gainsboro-neighborhood/

4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOLf7rN_WrE

5. https://www.wsls.com/video/news/2022/05/04/push-to-revitalize-gainsboro-neighborhood/

6. See Mary Ellen Campagna’s Facebook page Gainsboro article from 2017.


Please visit the Gainsboro Library for more information and research on Gainsboro and its history. MEC


The Federal Housing Act of 1949 allowed for the removal low-income African American communities for development projects that benefited the largely white power structure. The government supposedly paid black residents several thousand dollars for their homes, promising better housing would be provided for those who were displaced; however, this rarely happened.

The Fair Housing Act of 1968 made it illegal to discriminate in renting and selling homes but that would not end of discriminatory policies in the U.S. This law replaced busing in many cities so that years later, many schools, particularly in urban areas, are segregated by race once again.


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